In light of the propensity for cheating, there are ethical concerns for a writer in an essay business that his research may be misused for the purposes of academic dishonesty. On the one hand, it is possible to view model answers as another source that a student has at his disposal, such as a textbook and a journal.
It is ultimately the intentions of the client that determine whether unethical results follow and a student may equally plagiarise from these sources if he is so minded. On the other hand, it is clear that the focused and targeted response given to specific questions means that abuse is more likely. However, one cannot ignore the many clients who use essay writing services legitimately to further own learning..
Any questioning of the ethics of such businesses must account for the positive impact they have on guiding those in difficulty. The public perception of essay writing services is undermined by questionable ethics, and legitimate clients may be deterred. It is therefore vital for such businesses to clearly state their ethical policy and present good practice guides on how the research should best be used.
If students lack research skills and knowledge by blindingly relying on the services of essay writing services without conducting work of their own, it could be that the economic and social role of educational establishments in providing capable employees is consequently undermined.
There are also political challenges for essay writing services that present opportunities for plagiarism. Political factors, such as the increasing costs of higher education, greater student numbers, increased pressure in light of difficult job markets, perceptions of degrees as economic investment products rather than learning opportunities, and the greater influx of international students, have identified as causes for the increase in plagiarism .
Such factors may also increase demand for legitimately commissioned research, as the cost of failing increases. Copyright is a critical area for the law for essay services, as it is important that the work commissioned is not misused either by the client or the writer.
Even if a writer infringes copyright, the essay site may still retain it in the commissioned work  , and to do so it is crucial for the business to ensure that appropriate copyright assignments and waivers of moral rights were included in the written agreements commissioning the work.
The CDPA specifically permits the assignment of copyright in works which have not yet been created and this can be exploited by the businesses by providing appropriate contracts to writers, ensuring that businesses retain copyright for the work they commission. However, moral rights  in particular represent a hazard for essay sites, as they remain with the author and cannot be assigned .
It is recommended, therefore, that in contracts with writers essay sites expressly require them to forfeit their moral rights. It would also be beneficial for copyright not to be granted to the client.
It is crucial that essay sites exclude the operation of implied licences by giving clients express licences strictly limited to the purpose of using the commissioned work as a basis for conducting their own independent work, precluding sharing to others.
A possible threat that could emerge to essay services is the law pertaining to negligent misstatements occasioning economic loss . Liability arises when a duty of care is imposed on the provider or professional advice where he is entrusted to use reasonable care and skill by the recipient and it is reasonable for the recipient to rely thereon .
The key ingredient of the principle, that a person holds himself out as having special expertise thus inviting reasonable reliance, clearly applied to essay writing services. Furthermore, it is that this tortuous liability survives the making of a contract, and that the recovery of damages includes loss of future earnings  , particularly relevant if a client is expelled for academic dishonesty and claims for loss of career prospects.
Although a disclaimer of liability may be sufficient  to preclude liability for negligently occasioned economic loss, this may be found to be subject to the requirements of reasonableness in the Unfair Contract Terms Act . The absence of alternative means to protect clients is a critical factor distinguishing liability here from the position where disclaimers are held to be effective  , and could equally be applied to the essay service market.
It is critical therefore, in addition to making good on anti-plagiarism and quality promises, for essay sites to stress that students should seek further advice before submitting and relying on the work conducted for them. By adopting a strong ethical and moral standpoint, as well as robust terms and conditions, many of the potential legal threats can be averted. In , a UK-based essay mill called Elizabeth Hall Associates required students purchasing essays to sign a disclaimer stating that "any material provided by Elizabeth Hall Associates [is] on the understanding that it is a guidance model only.
Students from different academic backgrounds have used essay mills. Many prestigious universities and colleges have caught their students turning in papers they bought from essay mills. One of the forms of cheating was turning in papers bought from essay mills.
Using term paper mills brings up some ethical controversies. Some people view essay mills as unethical while others view it as completely moral.
People view essay mills as ethical for different reasons. Some customers indicate that they use essay mills as a form of proof reading. Essay mill writers will read their writing only to make comments and feedback about content and grammar mistakes.
They also turn to essay mills to insure that all citations are correct. GPAs and grades are greatly stressed in schools which causes students to worry and make them feel like they cannot meet their deadlines.
Essay mills have been compared to business situations. Certain students and customers view term paper mills as equivalent to companies outsourcing labor. Outsourcing labor is a norm for businesses which insinuates that the use of term paper mills should be socially acceptable. Conversely, there are people who view purchasing essays from essay mills as unethical: Academic institutions are concerned about how essay mills affect learning.
Students who use essay mills do not go through the process of gathering research, which is a learning experience in itself.
Some professors, such as Dan Ariely, a professor of psychology and behavioral economics at Duke University and the author of The Honest Truth About Dishonesty , worry about the message term paper mills send to students.
He believes the existence of essay mills validates slacking off. Ariely has come across essay mills use plagiarism-encouraging language on their websites. Many customers believe that when they are ordering an essay online , that they are going to be receiving one from their own country; however, this is not always the case, as many essay mill companies are hosted around the world.
Having essay mills set up overseas allows for the owners of these companies to make high profits by paying wages in low-wage countries while selling the work of their employees in high-wage countries. Another article in The Chronicle of Higher Education from interviewed an American essay mill writer, who stated that he makes half of what the paper sells for.
Even in the US, the amount that writers get paid can vary. Universities and colleges have developed several strategies to combat this type of academic misconduct. Some professors require students to submit electronic versions of their term papers, so that the text of the essay can be compared by anti-plagiarism software such as Turnitin against databases of known "essay mill" term papers. Other universities have enacted rules allowing professors to give students oral examinations on papers which a professor believes to be ghostwritten; if the student is unfamiliar with the content of an essay that he has submitted, or its sources, then the student can be charged with academic fraud, a violation of the rules by which a student agrees to be bound when he enters a university or college program.
When a student is charged with academic fraud, his case is typically heard by a quasi-judicial administrative committee, which reviews the evidence. For students who are found guilty, the punishments range from a grade of zero on the specific assignment, to failure in the course in which the plagiarism occurred, to in extreme or repeated cases suspension or expulsion from the institution.
In some cases, students who have committed academic fraud may also have academic honors, degrees, or awards revoked. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The Chronicle of Higher Education. Saksniit Archived March 4, , at the Wayback Machine. Implications for Student Affairs Administrators". College Student Affairs Journal. Retrieved May 15, Cheating on Papers is a Booming Web Business". North Carolina State University. Retrieved August 12, Journal of College Student Development.
Grammarly's free writing app makes sure everything you type is easy to read, effective, and mistake-free. Yes they are. Whatever opinions people have (I am wholly against them in their current form for what it is worth) their legality is not in question. The majority of the essay writing websites.
The essay writing industry is a source of interesting statistical data. California, New York and Texas are the most popular regions where orders were coming from.
Essay mill. An essay mill (also term paper mill) is a business that allows customers to commission an original piece of writing on a particular topic so that they may commit academic fraud. Customers provide the company with specific information about the essay, including: a page length, a general topic, and a time frame with which to work. Are Essay Writing Services Legal. Yes, essay writing services by themselves are quite legal and are not committing any fraud. The question of ethics cannot really be answered by the representatives of essay writing services as these companies are providing a service for a pre-determined fee and the transaction is as transparent as it .
The potential misuse of essay writing services for plagiarism by students raises a host of potential problems for such business. This report addresses the resulting ethical issues, concerning the potential for cheating and its consequences, the political issues, such as the potential for undermining academic institutions and promoting success driven by wealth rather than merit, and legal. Essay Writing Companies Legal Reviews. blog Essay Writing Companies Legal Reviews. mindbody August 20, No Comments. Crayola Crayons Make Life More Colorful. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was first performed on a human being on July 3, It was a landmark event in modern medicine. And it was no small feat.